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2012 Articles of the "Polska Energetyka Słoneczna" journal written in English:(Other articles are available only in Polish)
POLSKA ENERGETYKA SŁONECZNA Nr. 1-4/2012
Table of Contents:

Equilibrium and heat of adsorption for selected adsorbent-adsorbate pairs used in adsorption heat pumps - B. Ambrożek, K. Zwarycz-Makles, W. Szaflik
Solid sorption cooler with composite sorbent bed and heat pipe thermal control - L. Vasiliev, A. Tsitovich, A. Zhuravlyov, A. Antough
Building integration of renewable energy systems towards zero or nearly zero energy buildingd - S. A. Kalogirou
The UPS unit cooling under summer conditions - A. Rusowicz
Development of solar thermal technologies - D. Chwieduk
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EQUILIBRIUM AND HEAT OF ADSORPTION FOR SELECTED ADSORBENT-ADSORBATE PAIRS USED IN ADSORPTION HEAT PUMPS

B. Ambrożek1, K. Zwarycz-Makles2, W. Szaflik2
West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Polska
1Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection Processes
2Department of Heating, Ventilation and Heat engineering

Abstract
The results of theoretical studies of adsorption equilibrium for selected adsorbent-adsorbate pairs used in adsorption heat pumps were presented. The following pairs were studied: water- alumina, water- silica gel, water-zeolite 13X, ammonia-activated carbon, ammonia-charcoal, ammonia-clinoptilolite, ammonia-polymer resin. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data, taken from the literature, were described using the Dubinin-Astakhov model. Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, isosteric heat of adsorption was evaluated for all studied adsorbent-adsorbate pairs.

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SOLID SORPTION COOLER WITH COMPOSITE SORBENT BED AND HEAT PIPE THERMAL CONTROL

L. Vasiliev, A. Tsitovich, A. Zhuravlyov, A. Antough
Luikov Heat & Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk, Belarus

Abstract
Three adsorbers cooler was experimentally investigated. Ammonia was chosen as a working fluid. Two adsorbers (twins) were filled with the same complex compound (activated carbon fibre with MnCl2 microcrystals on the filament surface). The third low temperature adsorber had second complex compound (activated carbon fibre with BaCl2 microcrystals on the filament surface). The cycle of physical adsorption and chemical reactions in the sorbent bed of adsorber was followed with condensation/evaporation of ammonia inside the pores of the sorbent material. The specific feature of the third adsorber is the time of its cold generation. It is the sum of the liquid evaporation time and the time of desorption/regeneration of ammonia in the sorbent bed. This is a novelty of cooler design, which increases the heat and cold generation capacity and rate. The cooler thermal management is based on vapordynamic thermosyphons. The solar heat is the source of energy of cooler. The sink of the cold is the air flow.

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BUILDING INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS TOWARDS ZERO OR NEARLY ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS

S. A. Kalogirou
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology

Abstract
With buildings accounting for 40% of primary energy requirements in EU and the implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), developing effective energy alternatives for buildings is imperative. The increasing role for renewables implies that solar thermal systems (STS) and photovoltaics (PV) will have a main role as they contribute directly to the heating and cooling of buildings and the provision of electricity and domestic hot water. Meeting building electrical and thermal loads will be primarily achieved through an extensive use of renewables, following standard building energy saving measures, such as good insulation or advanced glazing systems. These systems are typically mounted on building roofs with no attempt to incorporate them into the building envelope creating aesthetic challenges, space availability issues and envelope integrity problems. This paper aims to give a survey of possible solutions of PV and STS integration on the building roofs and façades. The advantages of integration are quantified and suggestions are given to address the possible problems created.

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THE UPS UNIT COOLING UNDER SUMMER CONDITIONS

A. Rusowicz
Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Abstract
The paper analyses the behaviour of the UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) cooling system under summer circumstances. The problem is that for the proper functioning of a UPS unit, the inside temperature must be less than 30oC. In other case the batteries tend to loose energy and electronic systems start to overheat. What is taken into consideration is the influence of solar radiation on a UPS container (it depends on the placement and time during the day). Next, there is a description of incoming and outgoing heat streams. Furthermore, the paper calculates the heat balance and discusses the installed cooling system. The question is: Is the cooling system capable of keeping the temperature in the container under 30oC in case of hot summer or not?

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DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

D. Chwieduk
Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Abstract
Solar Thermal market is mostly recognised as solar collector technology market and is represented by three main solar collectors types flat-plate, evacuated tube, unglazed plastic. Solar thermal market is mostly represented worldwide by Domestic Hot Water (DHW) systems for single family houses, then by Domestic Hot Water (DHW) systems for multi-family houses and public buildings, next are district heating systems that have been also installed mainly in Europe. New promising applications of solar thermal technology are solar combi-systems for domestic hot water and space heating, with their modern extension to solar-combi plus systems for domestic hot water, space heating and cooling. Solar thermal is also connected with solar passive technologies focused on avoiding heating loads in winter and cooling needs in summer. It is expected that solar thermal technologies will be very soon one of the major renewable energy technologies for the low and medium temperature heat supply (depending on the climate) in buildings. To improve implementation of solar thermal it is necessary to offer any building to a client by construction companies and developers as fully ready energy efficient technology product with solar technologies included. Solar cooling has huge potential in the future because of the natural synergy betweensolarenergyavailabilityandcoolingneeds.

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