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Articles of the "Polska Energetyka Słoneczna" journal written in English:(Other articles are available only in Polish)


Articles:
2006, 2007, 2009.
2012 2012 2012 2012

2009
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SOLAR THERMAL COOLING TECHNOLOGIES

Robert E. Critoph
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, UK

Abstract
The demand for cooling, whether for comfort or food preservation is a major consumer of energy across the world and is growing. The use of solar energy to meet that demand has a natural synergy, but the technical and economic challenges are large. Some of the different available technologies are compared and contrasted, including absorption, adsorption, desiccant wheels etc. and the state of the art as reviewed in the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 38 is outlined. Adsorption cooling, the technology under development at Warwick, is explained in more detail and progress is charted with reference to different projects: one on car air conditioning and a new one to develop a 5m3 solar thermal cold store.

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USE OF THERMAL SOLAR ENERGY IN DISTRIBUTED SMALL-SCALE PLANTS FOR WATER DESALINATION

Joan Carles Bruno, Alberto Coronas
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Dept. Enginyeria Mecanica, Tarragona, Spain

Abstract
During recent years there has been a renewed interest for the development of efficient renewable energy driven desalination systems for distributed small-scale production that would supply remote and small communities. In this paper is presented a short review of these technologies driven by thermal solar energy including fundamentals, technical performance data and economics. Also in the second part of the paper are described the recent activities in this field of the Applied Thermal Engineering research group (CREVER) at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona, Spain).

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THERMOSIPHONIC HYBRID PV/T SOLAR SYSTEMS

Manolis Souliotis1, Yiannis Tripanagnostopoulos1, Soteris A. Kalogirou2
1 Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering,Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus

Abstract
Thermosiphon solar water heaters and Photovoltaic (PV) devices are well known solar systems that provide heat and electricity, respectively. In this work, these two systems are combined into a hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar system which can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, thus achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules which can be used to heat water or air. By doing so the operating temperature of PV modules is reduced, which is beneficial, as it keeps their electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, the design considerations and experimental results of a thermosiphonic hybrid PV/T solar system are presented. The electrical and thermal energy output for a pc-Si PV/T module type under the climatic conditions of Patras are presented.

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AN ECO-FRIENDLY LOW ENERGY HOUSE IN MARCINKOWO NEAR OLSZTYN

J. Dobriański1, M. Samsel2, D. Chludziński1
1 Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn
2 Marcinkowo near Olsztyn, Poland

Abstract
This paper presents the main features of a detached house and the experience accumulated during the first year of its use. The building is eco-friendly and energy-saving. The design takes into account such energy-related issues as heating the building, energy saving, utilisation of energy from internal sources and from the surroundings, seasonal accumulation of energy and cooling during a warm period. Environmental and health-related issues were also taken into account.

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INCREASING ACCEPTANCE FOR BIOGAS APPLICATIONS

Wolfgang E. Baaske1, Grzegorz Kunikowski2, Kyle Marshall1
1 STUDIA-Schlierbach, Panoramaweg 1, 4553 Schlierbach, Austria
2 Instytut Paliw i Energii Odnawialnej, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract
As a renewable energy source, biogas has clear environmental advantages. This article and the project BiogasAccepted focus more specifically on the topic of acceptance of biogas operations in selected European Regions. Within the BiogasAccepted project there were four deeply analyzed cases in Poland where the three branches: networking, public relations and the use of questionnaires tool, were implemented. The case studies present different investment development stages – an advanced project without a building permit, one almost being installation, and two plants under construction. All of them were sized from 30 kWel to 2.3 MWel. The public acceptance varied from perceived neutrality to impending protests.

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WORLD SOLAR CHALLENGE - OBSERVERS & VOLUNTEERS IN SOLAR-POWERED RACING

Michal Ruzinsky
Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering & Information Technology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Abstract
The first real cross country solar car race, the World Solar Challenge (WSC) was created by Hans Tholstrup in 1987. The WSC is truly a unique adventure, with teams from all over the world preparing their solar powered vehicles to undertake the 3000 km journey across the outback of Australia from tropical Darwin in Northern Territory to Adelaide in South Australia.
The World Solar Challenge is an extreme endurance event and the premier forum for electric vehicle technology. It is the focus of the creative efforts of some of the best companies and engineering schools in the world and attracts worldwide media attention, books, documentaries and even a feature film. WSC promotes educational excellence in science and engineering, renewable energy technologies and the creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a range of disciplines.

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EXPLOITATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION IN OSTOJA IN SUMMER 2009

Z. Zapałowicz1, D. Szyszka2
1 Department of Heat Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
2 Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

Abstract
The paper presents two off-grid photovoltaic installations started working in Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja by Szczecin in November of 2008. The center is at present an administrative unit of the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. After the installations were started up, their characteristic parameters were monitored. Results of analysis of the above monitoring are given in the present paper and they apply for the summer 2009. They allow to consider the working efficiency of the installations.

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EXPLOITATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION IN OSTOJA IN SUMMER 2009

Z. Zapałowicz1, D. Szyszka2
1 Department of Heat Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
2 Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

Abstract
The paper presents analysis of working parameters of two autonomous, off-grid photovoltaic installations in Training and Research Center for Renewable Energy Sources in Ostoja by Szczecin. The center is a unit of the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. The analysis of working conditions for PV installations concerns autumn 2009. The aim of the analysis is to choose the optimal load for both PV installations under research.

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A NOVEL RETROFITTABLE SOLAR COOLER/HEATER BASED ON ADSORPTION CYCLE FOR DOMESTIC APPLICATION

L. Crema, A. Bozzoli, G. Cicolini, A. Zanetti
Renewable Energies and Environmental Technologies unit (REET), Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Povo Trento, Italy

Abstract
Solar driven cooling machines have been employed until recent years only in niche markets due to a series of reasons: dimensions of the machines, cooling power storage, production costs, and others. At present times there's a high request for a reliable technology developed for domestic applications at distributed level. The solar heating is a rapidly growing market and the available technologies are almost consolidated, but a strong limitation to the application of solar collectors is due to the waste heat available in summer periods, which limit the sizing of solar domestic installations, limit the capacity to provide not only support to hot sanitary water, but even to indoor space heating. The objective of the present work is to suggest a possible solution and try to give a contribution to the described problem. The R&D performed at FBK-REET labs has produced a new concept of solar driven cooling/heating machine based on a double adsorption/desorption cycle acting between two small tanks. The machine, working cyclically between desorption and adsorption, is provided of an heat storage to separate the cooling energy availability from the solar radiation. Thus the system is able to provide not only cooling power in hot periods, but even heating in colder times or for hot sanitary water production. The system may be scaled up or down in cooling capacity, sizing properly the porous adsorbing material volumes, and in cooling power, changing the air mass flow through the system. A prototype has been built, provided of a cooling capacity of about 25 kWhth and a cooling power retrofittable until a max of 4 kWth in the range of cold temperatures of about 8-12°C. The overall COP is in the range of 0,6-0,7. The system is patent pending (Publication number: WO2008099262).

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SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH HEAT STORAGE

W. Smolec, M. Jaroszyński
Instytut Inżynierii Chemicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Gliwice

Abstract
Experimental investigations of solar air heater with box-type absorber and with heat storage unit has been performed. The heat storage unit was filled with a commercial grade paraffine wax and its phase changes were applied to store the heat during operation of the air heater. Amounts of energy delivered by this air heater as well as by similar air heater but without heat storage unit were measured. Initial results revealed that the energy amounts delivered by solar air heater with heat storage unit are bigger than those delivered by solar air heater without heat storage unit.

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EUROPEAN SOLAR THERMAL STANDARDS AND SOLAR KEYMARK CERTIFICATION

J. E. Nielsen
Secretary of the Solar Keymark Network

Abstract
This paper gives an update on European standards (EN's) and European certification (Solar Keymark) for solar thermal products:

The European Standards are being revised just now to include more systems and components types and to adapt to European Directives (CE-marking).

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Abstracts:
2006, 2007, 2009.


2007


MULTIFUNCTIONAL MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

Jan M. Cremers
Head of Envelope Division SolarNext AG / Hightex Group plc
info@solarnext.de / info@hightexworld.com

Abstract
Building envelopes are the separating and filtering layers between outside and inside, between nature and adapted spaces occupied by people. In historic terms, the primary reason for creating this effective barrier between interior and exterior was the desire for protection against a hostile outside world and adverse weather conditions. Various other requirements and aspects have been added to these protective functions: light transmission, an adequate air change rate, a visual relationship with the surroundings, aesthetic and meaningful appearance etc.
Accurate knowledge of all these targets is crucial to the success of the design as they have a direct influence on the construction. They determine the amount of energy and materials required for construction and operation in the long term.
In this context, transparent and translucent materials play an important role for the building envelope as they not only all>rbow light to pass through but also energy. Besides glass, a variety of other translucent materials have attracted architects from the very beginning: plastics, perforated metal plate and meshing but most of all membrane materials which can also withstand structural loads.
Earlier applications of membrane materials have served the purpose to keep off sun, wind, rain and snow while offering the advantage of enormous span widths and a great variety of shapes.
The development of high performance membrane materials on the basis of PTFE (poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene), e.g. PTFE coated glass fabrics, and transparent ETFE-foils (also a fluoropolymer) were milestones in the search for appropriate materials for the building envelope. As early as 1976, first solar balloons and solar warm water collectors could be manufactured from ETFE-foils thanks to new bonding and application technologies. In more recent times, rapid developments in material production varieties (e.g. laminates) and surface refinement of membrane materials (e.g. coatings), along with advanced CFD and other computer simulation methods, have been a constant stimulus for innovation. As a result, modern membrane technology is a key factor for intelligent, flexible building shells, complementing and enriching the range of traditional building materials.
The Membrane Projects presented below are examples for a forward-thinking and resource friendly technology which is able to merge different aspects, from high quality design, to function and comfort.


DAYLIGHTING OF ATTICS WITH SKYLIGHTS

Jitka Mohelníková
MSc, PhD Faculty of Civil Engineering Brno University of Technology Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno Czech Republic Tel: +420541147420E-mail: mohelnikova.j@fce.vutbr.cz

Abstract
Visual comfort is one of major design requirements for indoor comfort in buildings. Sklights are used for daylighting of attics rooms very frequently. Advantages of skylights as roof window are obvious. The skylight does not require difficult improvements and complicated constructions in a load-bearing structure of a roof and it does not change significantly architectural view of buildings.


EFFICIENCY AND COLORS IN LEDs LIGHT SOURCES

Zbigniew Turlej
Electrotechnical Institute, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract
The light gains from LEDs continue to grow, doubling a about every two years. It gives real hope for the LEDs solving problem of efficiency in the lighting. This paper presents review some problems connected with efficiency and colors in LEDs technologies.


SOLAR COOLING SYSTEMS

Uli Jakob
SolarNext AG, Nordstrasse 10, 83253 Rimsting, Germany

Abstract
This paper presents the different technologies of solar cooling systems and there advantages as well as functional characterisations. The air-conditioning as well as the solar thermal market in Europe and world-wide shows annual growth rates of several percents. In the first case initiated by the growing demand for air-conditioning in residential houses as well as office and hotel buildings and in the second case by increasing environmental awareness or political guidelines. Due to the large number of manufactured compressor units, these systems are produced and offered at very low prices, however, such systems increase the adverse effects on local environments as a result of using primary energy such as electricity. Therefore, it is important to search for alternative air-conditioning units that are driven by either waste heat or solar thermal energy.


SUN - ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY, NATURAL PHYSICAL CAVITIES AND NEW BUILDING ENVELOPE TECHNOLOGY OF INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

B. Bielek, M. Bielek
Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Keywords
Energy and society, Sustainable development of society. Energy and human dwellings. Energy and building. Energy conservation. Buildings with effective energy conservation. Structure of environmentally, energy efficient thermal protection of buildings. Energy saving building. Low-energy (solar) building. Zero-energy building. System relation Building - Climate - Energy. Alternative energy sources. Solar energy. Interaction Sun - glass and contemporary glazing system. Natural physical cavity. Physical regime of natural cavity. New building envelope technology. Double-skin transparent facade. Intelligent building and its system features. Interaction of intelligent building and double-skin transparent facade. Area of application of new building envelope technology in the design of intelligent buildings. Climatic and energy plan of the building of the Slovak National Bank /SNB/ with double-skin transparent facade. Simulation and calculation experiments of the physical regime of cavity and energy connections of the building of SNB in Bratislava. Energy conservation coming from the application of the double-skin transparent facade exploiting alternative source of energy - Sun.


INTEGRATED CARE CENTRE FOR THE ELDERLY PLASY MOR, BURRY PORT, CARMARTHENSHIRE, SOUTH WALES FOR GWALIA HOUSING GROUP LTD

PCKO ARCHITECTS, London, UK

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
This new development occupies previously disused land originally given over to industrial use. Following closure of the redundant industrial plant the site was cleared for use under the control of the Welsh Development Agency. The scheme is widely considered as a significant enhancement of the local environment and has benefited from considerable media exposure.
The development comprises a Day Centre facility and 38 self-contained one and two bedroom flats arranged around a communal garden. Two blocks of accommodation are linked by the main communal area designed as a light, glazed structure combining several functions: entrance hall, focal meeting point and internal garden linked visually to both the entrance area and main garden beyond.
This 'glass garden' can be enjoyed by residents and visitors in all weather and also provides the link to the Day Centre facilities. These facilities are available to local community residents as well as providing 'extra-care' resources for scheme residents.
The Day Centre incorporates common rooms, rest and activity areas, dining facilities, a laundry room, a treatment room, assisted bathrooms, a training/rehabilitation kitchen, a hairdressing salon and a shop. The development is fully accessible and benefits from excellent local transport links being in close proximity to Burry Port town centre, the railway station and local bus routes.
The project was initiated by Carmarthenshire County Council toward the end of 1999. Gwalia Housing Group was invited to enter into partnership with the local authority as the strategic partner following their success with a similar scheme, developed in partnership with the neighbouring City and County of Swansea several years earlier.

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Abstracts:
2006, 2007, 2009.


2006


INNOVATIVE SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR AESTHETIC AND COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING INTERGRATION

Yiannis Tripanagnostopoulos
Physics Department University of Patras, Patra 26504, Greece

Abstract
The contribution of solar energy is expected to be essential for the next years towards the EC aim of 12% by RES until the year 2010. In this paper a scenario towards a wider application of them in Greece is presented and innovative solar energy devices that have been developed in Physices Department of University of Patras and aim to an improved integration of solar energy systems on buildinds are included. Energy, cost and aesthetic aspects of the investigated solar energy systems are briefly presented and perspectives for their wide application are discussed.


SOLAR HEATING USING ROOF MODULE COLLECTORS EXAMPLES FROM NEW AND EXISTNG BUILDING AREAS

Jan - Olof Dalenbäck
Bulding Services Engineering, Dept. of Energy and Environment Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden

Abstract
Solar heating can be applied to new, as well as existing multifamily buildings; either the buildings are connected to local heating plant or a district heating network. The paper will describe a development of roof integrated collectors from site built colectors to prefabricated roof module collectors based on two major applications: new residential buildings built by EKSTA Bostads AB and existing multifamily buildings renovated by Gärdstensbostäder AB, both municipal housing companies are in the Gőteborg area. Since early 1980`s EKSTA has built about 10 new residential developments with about 6000 m2 of solar collectors on a number of new buildings. The majority of buildings, typically better insulated than required by the Swedish building code, are connected to local heating plants combining wood pellet or briquette boilers and solar heating using roof-integrated solar collectors. Gärdstensbostäder has carried out a renovation project with the aim to demonstrate a comprehensive intyegrated concept, comprising energy concervation and utilisation of solar energy, as well as improved architectural and social conditions, making the buildings in a typical existing residential building area from the 1970`s more attractive. The project comprises 500 apartments in3-5 floor concrete element in six blocks. The renovation was carried out in two phases: one finished late 2000 and one finished in early 2004. One innovative feature is 1 410 m2 prefabricated roof modules with integrated solar collectors for pre-heating DHW.


INTEGRATED SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES

Torben Esbensen, Lotte Gramkow
Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S, Sonderborg, Denmark

Abstract
The sun can provide us with renewable, non-polluting energy, create work, make us independent of oil and other fossil fueles, and secure our energy supplies. But we are far from utilising these potentials. The paper gives examples of how to utilise solar energy in larger buildings, where architecture and the integration of solar energy are being implemented with a holistic approach. Furthermore the paper presents examples of solar heating plants in combination with district heating.


ADVANCED GLAZING SYSTEMS

Philip C Eames, Jun Fu Zhao, Jinlei Wang, Trevor Hyde and Yueping Fang
Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of olster, Northem Irleand, UK

Abstract
Energy use in building comprieses for most developed contries between 40 and 50% of total energy use. The glazing system installed into the building envelope influences significantly the heating/cooling, air conditioning and lighting loades and is a key component that must be addressed when minimising energy use. Most current low-heat loss glazing systems comprise more that two glass panes and are heavy, bulky and wide. A new vacuum glazing system produced at low temperatures at the University of Ulster allows heat loss coefficients of less than 1Wm-2K-1to be achieved using two glass panes only. Detailes of the current fabrication process and results of thermal charactersation are presented.


CARBON-AMMONIA ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGY FOR HEATING AND COOLING IN BUILDINGS

Robert E. Critoph
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

Abstract
Sorption heat pumps and chillers are a relatively new way of providing efficient heating and cooling from heat sources such as solar energy, biomass, waste heat or conventional fuels. Included within the ´sorption´ description are conventional Li-Br systems for air conditioning, ammonia diffusion absorption machines, silica gel water adsorption chillers now being made in Japan and a number of solid adsorption concepts being developed in the EU. The principles are described, together with the choices of working pair and thermodynamic cycle. There is no one `best`solution for all applications within buildings. The principle applications are:

Examples of a number of different solar powered air conditioning systems and trigeneration systems are given. At present, solar powered air conditioning using closed cycles cannot be considered economic, due to the high cost, but it is technically feasible and many examples exist. Trigeneration presents many more commercial opportunities. Gas-fired heat pumps have the greatest potential, both in market and carbon dioxide emission reductions, but are the least developed technology. The research at Warwick focuses on carbon-ammonia adsorption cycles for trigeneration and for gas fired heat pumps /chillers. The key challenge is to improve internal heat transfer in order to both reduce the capital and running costs. The latest developments are in two areas; the use of arrays of low-cost modules and new designs of plate heat exchanger. The construction, expenses, and likely applications of the different systems and their performance is presented. As with all energy conservation technologies, there is a trade-off between capital costs and savings and the balance is discussed.


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